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Overview of Mining and its Impacts

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Proposed mining projects vary according to the type of metals or materials to be extracted from the
earth. The majority of proposed mining projects involve the extraction of ore deposits such as
copper, nickel, cobalt, gold, silver, lead, zinc, molybdenum, and platinum. The environmental
impacts of large-scale mining projects involving these metal ores are the subject of this Guidebook.
The Guidebook does not discuss the mining of ores that are extracted using strip mining methods,
including aluminum (bauxite), phosphate, and uranium.

The Guidebook also does not discuss mining involving extraction of coal or aggregates, such as sand, gravel, and limestone.


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